Today, there are over 500 million Muslims throughout the Indian subcontinent (India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh), making it one of the largest population centers of Muslims in the world. Since Islam first entered India, it has contributed greatly to the area and its people. Today, numerous theories about how India came to be such a largely Muslim land exist. Politically, some (such as the Hindutva movement in India) try to make Islam seem foreign to India, by insisting it only exists because of invasions by Arab and Persian Muslims. The truth, however, is far from that.
The Earliest Muslim Indians
Even before the life of Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him) in the 600s, Arab traders were in contact with India. Merchants would regularly sail to the west coast of India to trade goods such as spices, gold, and African goods. Naturally, when the Arabs began to convert to Islam, they carried their new religion to the shores of India. The first mosque of India, the Cheraman Juma Masjid, was built in 629 (during the life of Prophet Muhammad) in Kerala, by the first Muslim from India, Cheraman Perumal Bhaskara Ravi Varma. Through continued trade between Arab Muslims and Indians, Islam continued to spread in coastal Indian cities and towns, both through immigration and conversion.
Muhammad bin Qasim
The first great expansion of Islam into India came during the Umayyad Dynasty of caliphs, who were based in Damascus. In 711, the Umayyads appointed a young 17 year old man from Ta’if to extend Umayyad control into Sindh: Muhammad bin Qasim. Sindh is the land around the Indus River in the Northwestern part of the subcontinent, in present-day Pakistan. Muhammad bin Qasim led his army of 6,000 soldiers to the far eastern reaches of Persia, Makran.
He encountered little resistance as he made his way into India. When he reached the city of Nerun, on the banks of the Indus River, he was welcomed into the city by the Buddhist monks that controlled it. Most cities along the Indus thus voluntarily came under Muslim control, with no fighting. In some cases, oppressed Buddhist minorities reached out to the Muslim armies for protection against Hindu governors.
Despite the support and approval of much of the population, the Raja of Sindh, Dahir, opposed the Muslim expansion and mobilized his army against Muhammad bin Qasim. In 712, the two armies met, with a decisive victory for the Muslims. With the victory, all of Sindh came under Muslim control.
It is important to note, however, that the population of Sindh was not forced to convert to Islam at all. In fact, for almost everyone, there was no change in day-to-day life. Muhammad bin Qasim promised security and religious freedom to all Hindus and Buddhists under his control. For example, the Brahman caste continued their jobs as tax collectors and Buddhists monks continued to maintain their monastaries. Due to his religious tolerance and justice, many cities regularly greeted him and his armies with people dancing and music.
Patterns of Conversion
The successive waves of Muslim armies penetrating into India followed much the same pattern. Leaders such as Mahmud of Ghazni and Muhammad Tughluq expanded Muslim political domains without altering the religious or social fabric of Indian society.
Because pre-Islamic India was entirely based on a caste system in which society was broken into separate parts, conversion to Islam happened in a step-by-step process. Often, entire castes would convert to Islam at a time. This would happen for many different reasons. Often, however, the equality Islam provided was more attractive than the caste system’s organized racism. In the caste system, who you are born to determines your position in society. There was no opportunity for social mobility or to achieve greater than what your parents achieved. By converting to Islam, people had the opportunity to move up in society, and no longer were subservient to the Brahman caste.
Buddhism, which was once very popular in the subcontinent, slowly died out under Muslim rule. Traditionally, when people wanted to escape the caste system, they would move to the major population centers and convert to Buddhism. When Islam became an option, however, people began to convert to Islam instead of Buddhism, while still leaving the caste system. The myths of Islam violently destroying Buddhism in India are simply false. Buddhists were tolerated under Muslim rule and no evidence exists that shows forced conversions or violence against them.
Wandering teachers also had a major role in bringing Islam to the masses. Muslim scholars traveled throughout India, making it their goal to educate people about Islam. Many of them preached Sufi ideas, a more mystical approach to Islam that appealed to the people. These teachers had a major role in bringing Islam to the masses in the countryside, not just the upper classes around the Muslim rulers.
Did Islam Spread by Force?
While some claim that Islam’s huge population in India is a result of violence and forced conversion, the evidence does not back up this idea at all. Although Muslim leaders replaced Hindu kings in most areas, society was left as is. Stories of forced conversion are very few and often not credible enough to warrant academic discussion.
If Islam spread through violence and warfare, the Muslim community today in India would exist only in the areas closest to the rest of the Muslim world. Thus only the western part of the subcontinent would have any Muslim population at all. What we see instead is pockets of Islam throughout the subcontinent. For example, Bangladesh and its 150 million Muslims are in the far east, separated from other Muslim-majority areas by Hindu lands in India. Isolated communities of Muslims exist also exist in western Myanmar, central India, and eastern Sri Lanka. These communities of Muslims are proof of Islam spreading peacefully throughout India, regardless of whether or not a Muslim government existed there. If Islam spread by force as some claim, these communities of Muslims would not exist.
Islam is an integral part of India and its history. As the Indian subcontinent remains today a multi-ethnic and multi-religious place, it is important to understand the position Islam has in the region. The political claims that some making regarding Islam as if it is an invading religion and foriegn to the people of India need to be defied with the truth of Islam’s peaceful spread throughout India.
Hodgson, M. The Venture of Islam . 2. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1961. Print.
Kennedy, Hugh. The Great Arab Conquests: How the Spread of Islam Changed the World We Live In. Philadelphia: Da Capo Press, 2007. Print.
“World’s second oldest mosque is in India.” Bahrain Tribune 07 06 2006, n. pag. Web. 23 Nov. 2012..
When Allama Murtaza Zaidi was asked: Why US adopts a soft policy toward Syria, now? (May be you know that recently John Kerry has pronounced to join Syrian President Assad in talks.) And what would be the outcome of this policy?
Murtaza Zaidi replied:
“Let me explain broadly the US policy toward Syria from the beginning of the unrest. US was seeking to ouster Bashar Al-Assad so that they could easily attack Hamas and Hezbollah. (Syria is considered as the life-line of both these resistance groups. Through Syria they receive assistance from Iran.) By blocking this route to Hamas and Hezbollah they could easily stifle these groups.
After defeating these two groups, it would be easy for them to target Iran. But Hezbollah provides army assistance to Syria, and Iran provides political assistance, which results in sustaining Bashar Al-Assad regime.
In the beginning of the unrest analysers were saying that Assad’s regime is not going to run more than few months. But by God grace, now experts are saying that it’s impossible to ouster Assad from Syria.
The opposition parties in Syria are ready to accept Assad government, but the US is not ready for that, which causes continuation in crisis.
Allama Muratza Zaidi from Pakistan is a renowned analyser of Conflict zones especially in Middle East. He is also a good orator.
Four-year-old girl lost her life after a house collapsed due to landslide in Pulwama district of Jammu and Kashmir.
The mother of the child was rescued alive from the debris and has been admitted in the district hospital.
“We took out the mother of the child from the debris. She was injured and has been admitted in the Pulwama hospital but the child was declared brought dead by the hospital,” said Ahmed, an eyewitness.
The incident took place in Malangpora area of Pulwama.
Since the past few days, Jammu & Kashmir has been witnessing heavy rainfall and snowfall at several places.
The landslides have damaged houses, schools and left many people stranded.
Iran’s Supreme Leader Ayatollah Seyyed Ali Khamenei, in a meeting with members of the Assembly of Experts on March 12, said realization of “perfect Islam” is what has been demanded by Almighty God and is the main objective of the Islamic Republic.
Referring to the necessity of presentation of pure Islam against efforts by arrogant powers to spread Islamophobia among nations, Ayatollah Khamenei said: “In examining the reasons of solutions for the existing challenges, one should avoid superficiality and manage the issues logically by finding their roots.”
He highlighted the personality and background of as well as services rendered by Ayatollah Mohammad Yazdi, the new chairman of the Assembly of Experts, said the election of the chairman was appropriate and well thought out. “This election was very well-founded and without any margins and it could serve as an example for other bodies.”
Citing verses from the holy Koran, Ayatollah Khamenei said attention to all pillars and instructions of religion is the main demand of Islam. “In Islamic teachings, there is no such thing as religion of minimums and realization of all elements of Islam and full realization of the enlightening religion should be set as objective and every effort should be made to that end,” he said.
Ayatollah Khamenei underscored the necessity of preserving all aspects of Islam both in appearance and in spirit, saying plans must be made for a perfect implementation of Islam.
He said world bullying powers are the main obstacle to the realization of perfect Islam.
“Spreading Islamophobia by the propaganda and political apparatuses of the Zionists indicates their fear for the annihilation of their illegitimate interests,” he said.
Ayatollah Khamenei said some enemies of the Islamic Republic claim that they seek the change in the behavior of the Islamic Republic and not regime change.
“A change in the behavior of the establishment means that the Irani an nation should back down from necessities of moving towards ideals and implementation of perfect Islam and this objective is in fact regime change and the annihilation of the very spirit of religion in the Islamic establishment. This time, [regime change] is being pursued through this method,” he said.
He said that everyone should avoid being passive vis-à-vis the phenomenon of Islamophobia, adding: “Islamophobia is in fact the manifestation of fear and panicking of international bullying [powers] in the face of political Islam and an Islam enshrined in the life of nations. The Iranian nation has become the standard-bearer of such Islam by its Islamic Revolution and has stabilized and bolstered it.”
Ayatollah Khamenei said Islamophobia could be transformed from a threat into an opportunity. “Incessant efforts for scaring nations and youths off Islam has brought to limelight an important question for public opinion; What’s the reason for this flood of onslaught and invasion against Islam?”
He said that this question could be answered through presenting pure Islam to nations, adding: “We should exhaust all our capacities to that end.”
Regarding characteristics of pure Islam, Ayatollah Khamenei said: “Introducing Islam as a religion that supports the oppressed and opposes the oppressor will excite and motivate youths everywhere in the world and will make them understand that Islam has practical plans in support of the oppressed.”
He said Islam is opposed to promiscuity, illusionism, soc ial injustice and rigid-mindedness. “We have to introduce an Islam, committed against promiscuity, an Islam present in everyday life versus secular Islam, an Islam of mercy for the weak and Islam of jihad against arrogant powers to the world. In this way, we will transform the enemies’ Islamophobia project into an opportunity for attracting the attention of nations to pure Islam.”
Ayatollah Khamenei also referred to existing challenges between Iran, the US and some European countries on the nuclear issue, saying: “In examining the reasons of solutions for the existing challenges, one should avoid superficiality and manage the issues logically by finding their roots.”
As a concrete example, he referred to the sanctions and its consequences, saying: “A scrutiny [of the issue of sanctions] woul d make it clear that the reason for harms we have endured due to sanctions is the country’s dependence on oil, state-run economy and absence of people in the economy.”
“Had we not made the country’s economy and the nation’s life dependent on oil revenues and by avoiding the repetition of mistakes we made after the Revolution regarding government control of all affairs, and let people get involved in economic activities, could the enemy inflict these harms by imposing oil embargo and sanctions against state organs?”
“If we find the roots of such issues and resolve them, our problems will be resolved and we will no longer be waiting for enemy’s affection,” he added.
Ayatollah Khamenei referred to Iran’s nuclear issue, saying: “To be fair, the nuclear team the esteemed president [Hassan Rouhani] has picked is good, trustable, acceptable and sympathetic and is making endeavors.”
“But,” he said, “I am worried because the opposite party practices trickery and deception and stabs in the back.”
Ayatollah Khamenei called on Iran’s nuclear negotiators to watch out for the US plots, saying: “Always ahead of the deadline set for the conclusion of negotiations, the Americans adopt a harsher, tougher and more radical tone in order to realize their objectives. We have to watch out for this ruse.”
He dismissed a general view that powerful governments no longer need to be deceitful. “Certain [individuals] imagine that the US no longer needs slyness and tricks, but despite this imagination, the Americans depend on ruse and deception and this is how they are behaving now. This reality worries us,” he added.
He referred to “disgusting and meaningless” claims by American official in recent weeks, saying: “After a Zionist clown travelled to the US and made remarks, the US officials sought to steer clear of all this, but they still claimed that Iran sponsors terrorism. That’s risible.”
“The Americans and their allies in the [Middle East] region created the most infamous and murderous terrorists, ISIL, and their likes and they continue to support them. But they attribute such things to the Iranian nation and the Islamic [Republic] establishment,” he said.
Ayatollah Khamenei referred to the US government’s support for the fake Zionist government, saying: “Washington is supporting in the most heinous way a government which officially acknowledges its terrorist acts, but at the same time it raises allegations against the Islamic Republic.”
Ayatollah Khamenei said a recent letter signed by a group of US Republican senators against Iran heralded the demise of political ethics in the US government.
“As required by internationally recognized regulations, all world countries remain committed to their obligations even after their governments change, but the American senators officially announce that after the current administration bows out, the obligations will be null and void. Is it not the ultimate of collapse of political ethics and implosion in the US system?”
“The Islamic Republic’s officials know well their job and they know how to act so that the US government could never renege on [its obligations under any] deal which may reach,” said Ayatollah Khamenei.
Ayatollah Khamenei also honored the late Ayatollah Mohammad-Reza Mahdavi Kani, the former head of the Assembly of Experts, describing him as a knowledgeable scholar and an influential combatant. He prayed to Almighty God for mercy upon him.
Prior to Ayatollah Khamenei’s remarks, Ayatollah Yazdi, the newly-elected chairman of the Assembly of Experts, presented a report about the 17th meeting of the Assembly.
Ayatollah Yazdi said Iran’s nuclear issue and domestic affairs, insistence on the implementation of the economy of resistance, avoiding slogans, presenting a report about the status of Islam in the current world, Islamophobia in the West and some worrying cultural issues were among the main topics discussed during the Assembly of Experts’ meeting.
After graduating from Columbia, Baltzer traveled to the Middle East in 2003 on a Fulbright grant to teach English in Ankara, Turkey. Since then, she has traveled to the West Bank as a volunteer for the International Women’s Peace Service to as she describes, document human rights abuses and support nonviolent resistance. Her publications have documented eight months of human conditions while on assignment in the West Bank for the International Women’s Peace Service.
Since the summer of 2005, she has been touring around the United States and abroad with a presentation and has written a book (Witness in Palestine) describing her personal experiences, observations, and photographs from eight months of documenting what she described as human rights violations in the West Bank. Noam Chomsky’s review of Baltzer’s book states, “Even those who are familiar with the grim reality of theoccupied territories will quickly be drawn into a world they had barely imagined by these vivid, searingly honest, intensely acute portrayalswhile Tanya Reinhart author of “Roadmap to Nowhere call it “Moving and vivid.” Mark Chmiel, teacher at St. Louis University and Webster University and author of “Elie Wiesel and the Politics of Moral Leadership”, has also written about Baltzer’s book.
On October 28, 2009, Baltzer was a guest on The Daily Show with Jon Stewart, longside Mustafa Barghouti.
Baltzer’s activism centers around nonviolent protests, as well as providing documented information to those interested in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict for the purpose of education and encouraging dialogue towards taking action on the issues. She claims that critical information doesn’t show up in the United States mainstream media. According to Balzter’s own account, when she first went to Israel on a free birthright trip in January 2000, she saw “a beautiful picture of Israel” but nothing of what was happening to Palestinians. “A Jewish student-life coordinator at Hillel, called the SJP event very well organized and well attended. It seemed very non-threatening and very non-violent. (Speaker) Baltzer made an extra special point that just because she was anti-Israeli policy, it doesn’t mean she is anti-Jewish.”
The Leader of the Islamic Revolution Ayatollah Seyyed Ali Khamenei met with officials and authorities in charge of natural resources and environmental protection on Sunday, March 8, 2015, noting that resolving environmental issues such as air pollution, the issue of haze and illegal acquisition of forests, pastures, and other green spaces needs planning, foresight, as well as continued and serious follow-up and firmness of related state bodies.
The leader emphasized: “Protection of the environment is a sovereign duty and this very important duty should be fulfilled by formulating a national document on environment as well as environmental annexes for all development and industrial projects in addition to criminalizing destruction of environment.
The Leader of the Islamic Revolution then pointed to Islam’s viewpoint on the importance of protecting land and public resources of the Earth, adding, “Islam and divine religions have put emphasis on the need for human beings to act responsibly vis-à-vis environment and maintaining a balance between humans and nature because disruption of this balance is the main factor behind all environmental problems.”
Ayatollah Khamenei noted that the environmental challenge is a universal challenge across the world and while enumerating long-term effects of environmental issues, said, “The experience of various countries shows that many environmental problems can be prevented and have their own solutions.”
The Leader then pointed to air pollution in big cities and the haze phenomenon as major ex amples, emphasizing that such problems can be solved through patience, foresight and necessary follow-up.
The Leader of the Islamic Revolution said, “The issue of environment is not an issue for this or that government, and is not an issue for this or that person, or an issue for this or that [political] faction, but is a countrywide and national issue and everybody should take part in solving problems that are related to it.”
Ayatollah Khamenei mentioned air, water and soil as three main elements of environment, noting, “To solve such problems as air pollution in big cities and the haze problem as well as shortage of water and soil erosion, serious work and endeavor, and continued follow-up are needed more than mere publicity.”
The Leader then described for ests and pastures as breathing lungs of cities and main factors protecting soil, expressing deep regret about encroachment of profiteering people on forests and natural resources, especially in the northern part of the country.
“All responsible organizations should categorically stop encroachment upon forests under any excuse such as building hotels, attracting tourists, building religious seminaries and other apparently acceptable justifications,” Ayatollah Khamenei added.
The Leader noted that illegal land acquisition, which has recently turned into illegal acquisition of mountainous areas in the form of construction in highlands, was another regretful problem, emphasizing, “Such measures should be considered as crime under the law, and involved people should be put to judicial prosecution with no mercy, and in case of any dawd ling on the part of state bodies, people responsible for the dawdling should be firmly punished.”
The Leader of the Islamic Revolution also stressed that protecting the environment is a sovereign duty, adding, “Drawing up a national document for environment; [considering] environmental annexes for all development, industrial and business projects; revision and amendment of laws to criminalize destruction of environment; and strengthening indiscriminate supervision are among the most important mechanisms to protect the environment and fight profiteers and lawbreakers.”
Ayatollah Khamenei then assessed as important the role played by people in protecting the environment in addition to building a suitable environment culture in the society by the national television, noting, “Anything worthy of mention was said today and from now on, it is for people to judge which state body fulfils its duty for protecting the environment and which body does not take necessary measures for the protection of the environment.”
The following is the full text of the speech delivered on January 26, 2015 by Ayatollah Khamenei, the Supreme Leader of the Islamic Revolution, in a meeting with officials of National Day of Engineering – coincident with the birthday anniversary of Khawaja Nasir al-Din al-Tusi.
In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful
Welcome you officials in the engineering organizations of the country. Mohandes Bahonar raised interesting points. The scope of engineering work in the country is really vast. Of course, Mr. Bahonar extended it to humanities. He explained that the reason is the cultural engineering of the country. He used the word “engineering” in its definitional sense, not what the word connotes commonly. But what he explained is correct. The scope of engineering work in the country is really vast and the description that he presented is good. The suggestions that he put forward in his letter – I had read the letter before – are good suggestions and we agree with them.
However, he forgot one point about issues related to the engineers of the country. This point is the role of the young engineers of the country in revolutionary events. During the revolutionary era, our technical faculties throughout the country were among the leaders of revolutionary activities. After the victory of the Revolution too – particularly during the Sacred Defense Era – engineers were self-sacrificing soldiers who utilized all their capabilities, energy, talents and skills. We witnessed this in the war. It can be said that these talented youth displayed a new skill every day. They acted in the same way after the Sacred Defense Era. Nanotechnology, stem cells, biotechnology and other such fields of study that were referred to in this meeting are achievements which were made after the Sacred Defense Era. After the war too, our young engineers continued to work on these areas. Well, they have had important responsibilities until today. In the present time, when I take a look, I see that many of the heads of the country are thankfully engineers. This has become a source of complaint for some people. They say that engineers are constantly assigned to important tasks.
Primarily, what you should do is to show the people that the slogan of “we can” is true. Fortunately, this is a cherished slogan among all fair-minded individuals in the country. This is what Mr. Bahonar referred to in his letter. You should work on different areas so that unfinished tasks can be completed. In the present time, we witness that the engineering exports are mostly related to construction. You should do something to help the engineering products of the country play their role in exports. We should be able to present the products of our engineers in factories and different other areas – which are vast in scope – in international markets. This is an important task that can be carried out by you. In the present time, you have important positions. You are either in the administration or in the Majlis and therefore, you can make decisions.
Besides, you should try to reduce the pressure of imports on the country. This is really an important matter. Today, the pressure of imports is destroying the country. And there are various excuses for this. One is the issue of smuggling. The figures that are released these days about smuggling are astonishing and confusing. The amount that is smuggled is 20-plus billion. This is mind-boggling. Now, there is an idea which says, “We should open the path so that we can stop smuggling. This way, products enter the country through customs and we will make a profit”. In my opinion, this is not reasonable.
You should do something to prevent the products of the country from being overwhelmed by imports. These are products that have been produced – in different areas – by our talented, religious, capable and very intelligent youth and men. This is one point which, in my opinion, is very important.
Another issue is the economy of resistance which you spoke about. Well, since it was presented, officials have approved it perhaps a thousand times. Different officials in the administration, Majlis and other organizations and different economic and even political activists have constantly spoken about the economy of resistance. Well, this is good, but nothing happens if we only repeat this in words. No illness is cured if we only mention the name of drugs. Drugs should be consumed. You in the Majlis and administration should see what has been done – in the real sense of the word – for the economy of resistance and what should be done in the future. In my opinion, you should purse this in a serious way. This was the second issue.
The third issue is that, as I said, we should see what our shortcomings are in the engineering area. For example, we have progressed in the area of building technical pieces and components. Building different machines is good. We can witness certain innovations in different areas. Engineering in the area of designing and building factories are tasks that we should pursue in a serious way. If you manage to firmly establish the tradition of innovation in designing different things, this will be a blessed tradition for which God will bestow rewards on you as long it exists in the country. You should pursue those tasks which the country needs. In any case, I hope that God will help you to carry out these tasks.
As I said in the beginning of my speech, our engineers are thankfully many in different centers. You have many engineers in the Majlis, in the administration and in different other organizations. You should really pay attention to your responsibility by utilizing engineering. You should see what tasks should be carried out and then you should pursue them. I hope that God will bestow success on all of you.
By Anwar Ali Czarpa
Anger has been raged up among Indians in these days when the whole world is marking the International Women’s Day. The BBC controversial documentary “India’s daughter” has once again pushed the whole India to put on the thinking caps to look for a solution to the rape culture. In the mean while more rape cases have been reported from Ahmadabad where a six-years-old girl was allegedly sexually attacked with the perpetrator inserting an iron rod into her private parts. Similarly in Kathua Kashmir a ten-year-old girl was kidnapped and raped.
Let me discuss the controversy first!
Country’s mass has been discussing the statement of the alleged rapist of 16 Dec, his lawyer and many other who have the similar view, which kept women’s equally responsible for rape. The BBC documentary “India’s daughter” has its own limitations, while the statement of the rapist has its own limitations and similarly the lawyer have his own limitations. Am not defending them at all, but the thing I want to make is, “they don’t reflect the whole society”. Here one can’t make judgement from particular to general.
Secondly, the mass is looking a panacea for this infamous rape culture in India and Delhi in particular. Most people have the view that the mentality should be change. I think this change is not easy as it is to say, and it’s not the cause of rape.
If one look for a solution than he should know, why people do rape? Obviously when their desires prolonged! So, what thing prolongs their desires (Lust)?
Obviously, the porn videos? The hot scenes in movies? Nude advertisements?
Let me be a little harsh!
If this lust don’t let prolong, by these vulgarities, the entire problem will be solved. But unfortunately our Indian society accepts these film stars and porn stars, as celebrities.
Is there anyone who can ask them, why they promote these inhuman things? Is it necessary to telecast a bed time scene to show a marriage life or love? Is it necessary to show nude women to advertise a product? This society says that the women are using as a sex object, but they can’t see, women are using as a product to advertise other products? If these models don’t let their body to use for advertising cause, 90 % of the rape victims will be protected.
Anger raged up among the society when the rapist says that “women are equally responsible for rape cases”. If we keep us calm and think for a while, his statement is partially true. Obviously women can be saved, if women want.
Here I want to quote an example. Do you know the top ten countries in the world with highest rape crimes? They are as below:
- South Africa
- United Kingdom
- Sri Lanka
Did you notice one thing? There is no any country from Middle East, in the top 10 countries with highest rape crimes, why? It has many key reasons:
First thing is Hijab they, which the world say “imposed” in their society. They don’t allow vulgarity in their movies, advertisements and public parks.
Second, the capital punishment also thwarts the people from thinking about such a major crime. Third, the culture of drinking alcohol is low in Middle East countries.
I know that, in this modern society, the statements I kept are looking as old arguments and spiritual one, or conservative or fundamentalist. But it’s true that the solution is here only. The so called feminism, secularism, liberalism and other ism’s are only a part of conspiracy theory to keep humanity busy in un-necessary things, or to cover the wicked deeds of the arrogant powers.
By Anwar Ali Czarpa, Assistant Editor, Medhaj News
Senior congress leader from Ladakh region Mr Nawang Rigzin Jora is being elected as the Congress Legislative Party leader in Jammu and Kashmir assembly.
Nawang Rigzin Jora was Minister for Urban Development and Urban Local Bodies. Before that he was Minister for Tourism & Culture. Before joining politics he was a member of the Ladakh Buddhist Association, Leh, a strong organisation and a member of World Buddhist Fellowship, and actively participated in an agitation for grant of Union Territory Status for Ladakh region.
Later when in a compromise between the government of India and the Ladakh Buddhist Association a separate administrative unit ” The Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council, Leh” was created in 1995, he became one of the four Executive Councillors of the newly constituted “Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council” under the leadership of the former president of Ladakh Buddhist Association Mr. Thupstan Chhewang.
In the mean while anger has been raged up between the people of Kargil as the newly formed government of Mufti Mohammad Sayeed has not granted any minister for any Kargili in the state.