How Islam Spread in India

Today, there are over 500 million Muslims throughout the Indian subcontinent (India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh), making it one of the largest population centers of Muslims in the world. Since Islam first entered India, it has contributed greatly to the area and its people. Today, numerous theories about how India came to be such a largely Muslim land exist. Politically, some (such as the Hindutva movement in India) try to make Islam seem foreign to India, by insisting it only exists because of invasions by Arab and Persian Muslims. The truth, however, is far from that.

The Earliest Muslim Indians

Even before the life of Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him) in the 600s, Arab traders were in contact with India. Merchants would regularly sail to the west coast of India to trade goods such as spices, gold, and African goods. Naturally, when the Arabs began to convert to Islam, they carried their new religion to the shores of India. The first mosque of India, the Cheraman Juma Masjid, was built in 629 (during the life of Prophet Muhammad) in Kerala, by the first Muslim from India, Cheraman Perumal Bhaskara Ravi Varma. Through continued trade between Arab Muslims and Indians, Islam continued to spread in coastal Indian cities and towns, both through immigration and conversion.

Muhammad bin Qasim

The first great expansion of Islam into India came during the Umayyad Dynasty of caliphs, who were based in Damascus. In 711, the Umayyads appointed a young 17 year old man from Ta’if to extend Umayyad control into Sindh: Muhammad bin Qasim. Sindh is the land around the Indus River in the Northwestern part of the subcontinent, in present-day Pakistan. Muhammad bin Qasim led his army of 6,000 soldiers to the far eastern reaches of Persia, Makran.

He encountered little resistance as he made his way into India. When he reached the city of Nerun, on the banks of the Indus River, he was welcomed into the city by the Buddhist monks that controlled it. Most cities along the Indus thus voluntarily came under Muslim control, with no fighting. In some cases, oppressed Buddhist minorities reached out to the Muslim armies for protection against Hindu governors.

Despite the support and approval of much of the population, the Raja of Sindh, Dahir, opposed the Muslim expansion and mobilized his army against Muhammad bin Qasim. In 712, the two armies met, with a decisive victory for the Muslims. With the victory, all of Sindh came under Muslim control.

It is important to note, however, that the population of Sindh was not forced to convert to Islam at all. In fact, for almost everyone, there was no change in day-to-day life. Muhammad bin Qasim promised security and religious freedom to all Hindus and Buddhists under his control. For example, the Brahman caste continued their jobs as tax collectors and Buddhists monks continued to maintain their monastaries. Due to his religious tolerance and justice, many cities regularly greeted him and his armies with people dancing and music.

Patterns of Conversion

The successive waves of Muslim armies penetrating into India followed much the same pattern. Leaders such as Mahmud of Ghazni and Muhammad Tughluq expanded Muslim political domains without altering the religious or social fabric of Indian society.

Because pre-Islamic India was entirely based on a caste system in which society was broken into separate parts, conversion to Islam happened in a step-by-step process. Often, entire castes would convert to Islam at a time. This would happen for many different reasons. Often, however, the equality Islam provided was more attractive than the caste system’s organized racism. In the caste system, who you are born to determines your position in society. There was no opportunity for social mobility or to achieve greater than what your parents achieved. By converting to Islam, people had the opportunity to move up in society, and no longer were subservient to the Brahman caste.

Buddhism, which was once very popular in the subcontinent, slowly died out under Muslim rule. Traditionally, when people wanted to escape the caste system, they would move to the major population centers and convert to Buddhism. When Islam became an option, however, people began to convert to Islam instead of Buddhism, while still leaving the caste system. The myths of Islam violently destroying Buddhism in India are simply false. Buddhists were tolerated under Muslim rule and no evidence exists that shows forced conversions or violence against them.

Wandering teachers also had a major role in bringing Islam to the masses. Muslim scholars traveled throughout India, making it their goal to educate people about Islam. Many of them preached Sufi ideas, a more mystical approach to Islam that appealed to the people. These teachers had a major role in bringing Islam to the masses in the countryside, not just the upper classes around the Muslim rulers.

Did Islam Spread by Force?

While some claim that Islam’s huge population in India is a result of violence and forced conversion, the evidence does not back up this idea at all. Although Muslim leaders replaced Hindu kings in most areas, society was left as is. Stories of forced conversion are very few and often not credible enough to warrant academic discussion.

If Islam spread through violence and warfare, the Muslim community today in India would exist only in the areas closest to the rest of the Muslim world. Thus only the western part of the subcontinent would have any Muslim population at all. What we see instead is pockets of Islam throughout the subcontinent.  For example, Bangladesh and its 150 million Muslims are in the far east, separated from other Muslim-majority areas by Hindu lands in India. Isolated communities of Muslims exist also exist in western Myanmar, central India, and eastern Sri Lanka. These communities of Muslims are proof of Islam spreading peacefully throughout India, regardless of whether or not a Muslim government existed there. If Islam spread by force as some claim, these communities of Muslims would not exist.

Conclusions

Islam is an integral part of India and its history. As the Indian subcontinent remains today a multi-ethnic and multi-religious place, it is important to understand the position Islam has in the region. The political claims that some making regarding Islam as if it is an invading religion and foriegn to the people of India need to be defied with the truth of Islam’s peaceful spread throughout India.
Bibliography:

Hodgson, M. The Venture of Islam . 2. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1961. Print.

Kennedy, Hugh. The Great Arab Conquests: How the Spread of Islam Changed the World We Live In. Philadelphia: Da Capo Press, 2007. Print.

“World’s second oldest mosque is in India.” Bahrain Tribune 07 06 2006, n. pag. Web. 23 Nov. 2012..

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Allama Murtaza Zaidi on Syria

When Allama Murtaza Zaidi was asked: Why US adopts a soft policy toward Syria, now? (May be you know that recently John Kerry has pronounced to join Syrian President Assad in talks.) And what would be the outcome of this policy?

Allama Murtaza Zaidi delivering speech. Photo - Personnel Site
Allama Murtaza Zaidi delivering speech. Photo – Personnel Site

Murtaza Zaidi replied:

“Let me explain broadly the US policy toward Syria from the beginning of the unrest. US was seeking to ouster Bashar Al-Assad so that they could easily attack Hamas and Hezbollah. (Syria is considered as the life-line of both these resistance groups. Through Syria they receive assistance from Iran.) By blocking this route to Hamas and Hezbollah they could easily stifle these groups.

After defeating these two groups, it would be easy for them to target Iran. But Hezbollah provides army assistance to Syria, and Iran provides political assistance, which results in sustaining Bashar Al-Assad regime.

In the beginning of the unrest analysers were saying that Assad’s regime is not going to run more than few months. But by God grace, now experts are saying that it’s impossible to ouster Assad from Syria.

The opposition parties in Syria are ready to accept Assad government, but the US is not ready for that, which causes continuation in crisis.

Allama Muratza Zaidi from Pakistan is a renowned analyser of Conflict zones especially in Middle East. He is also a good orator.

Four-year-old girl killed in landslide in J-K

Landslide Kashmir 1

Four-year-old girl lost her life after a house collapsed due to landslide in Pulwama district of Jammu and Kashmir.

The mother of the child was rescued alive from the debris and has been admitted in the district hospital.

“We took out the mother of the child from the debris. She was injured and has been admitted in the Pulwama hospital but the child was declared brought dead by the hospital,” said Ahmed, an eyewitness.

The incident took place in Malangpora area of Pulwama.

Since the past few days, Jammu & Kashmir has been witnessing heavy rainfall and snowfall at several places.

The landslides have damaged houses, schools and left many people stranded.

Alternative solution to rape culture

By Anwar Ali Czarpa

Anger has been raged up among Indians in these days when the whole world is marking the International Women’s Day. The BBC controversial documentary “India’s daughter” has once again pushed the whole India to put on the thinking caps to look for a solution to the rape culture. In the mean while more rape cases have been reported from Ahmadabad where a six-years-old girl was allegedly sexually attacked with the perpetrator inserting an iron rod into her private parts. Similarly in Kathua Kashmir a ten-year-old girl was kidnapped and raped.

Womens Day 1

Let me discuss the controversy first!

Country’s mass has been discussing the statement of the alleged rapist of 16 Dec, his lawyer and many other who have the similar view, which kept women’s equally responsible for rape. The BBC documentary “India’s daughter” has its own limitations, while the statement of the rapist has its own limitations and similarly the lawyer have his own limitations. Am not defending them at all, but the thing I want to make is, “they don’t reflect the whole society”. Here one can’t make judgement from particular to general.

Secondly, the mass is looking a panacea for this infamous rape culture in India and Delhi in particular. Most people have the view that the mentality should be change. I think this change is not easy as it is to say, and it’s not the cause of rape.

If one look for a solution than he should know, why people do rape? Obviously when their desires prolonged! So, what thing prolongs their desires (Lust)?

Obviously, the porn videos? The hot scenes in movies? Nude advertisements?

Let me be a little harsh!

If this lust don’t let prolong, by these vulgarities, the entire problem will be solved. But unfortunately our Indian society accepts these film stars and porn stars, as celebrities.

Is there anyone who can ask them, why they promote these inhuman things? Is it necessary to telecast a bed time scene to show a marriage life or love? Is it necessary to show nude women to advertise a product? This society says that the women are using as a sex object, but they can’t see, women are using as a product to advertise other products? If these models don’t let their body to use for advertising cause, 90 % of the rape victims will be protected.

Anger raged up among the society when the rapist says that “women are equally responsible for rape cases”. If we keep us calm and think for a while, his statement is partially true. Obviously women can be saved, if women want.

Here I want to quote an example. Do you know the top ten countries in the world with highest rape crimes? They are as below:

  1. USA
  2. South Africa
  3. Sweden
  4. India
  5. United Kingdom
  6. Germany
  7. France
  8. Canada
  9. Sri Lanka
  10. Ethiopia

Did you notice one thing? There is no any country from Middle East, in the top 10 countries with highest rape crimes, why? It has many key reasons:

First thing is Hijab they, which the world say “imposed” in their society. They don’t allow vulgarity in their movies, advertisements and public parks.

Second, the capital punishment also thwarts the people from thinking about such a major crime. Third, the culture of drinking alcohol is low in Middle East countries.

I know that, in this modern society, the statements I kept are looking as old arguments and spiritual one, or conservative or fundamentalist. But it’s true that the solution is here only. The so called feminism, secularism, liberalism and other ism’s are only a part of conspiracy theory to keep humanity busy in un-necessary things, or to cover the wicked deeds of the arrogant powers.

By Anwar Ali Czarpa, Assistant Editor, Medhaj News

Jora Nominated as Congress Legislative Party Leader in J&K Assembly

Jammu:

Senior congress leader from Ladakh region Mr Nawang Rigzin Jora is being elected as the Congress Legislative Party leader in Jammu and Kashmir assembly.

Rigzin Jora 1

Nawang Rigzin Jora was Minister for Urban Development and Urban Local Bodies. Before that he was Minister for Tourism & Culture. Before joining politics he was a member of the Ladakh Buddhist Association, Leh, a strong organisation and a member of World Buddhist Fellowship, and actively participated in an agitation for grant of Union Territory Status for Ladakh region.

Later when in a compromise between the government of India and the Ladakh Buddhist Association a separate administrative unit ” The Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council, Leh” was created in 1995, he became one of the four Executive Councillors of the newly constituted “Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council” under the leadership of the former president of Ladakh Buddhist Association Mr. Thupstan Chhewang.

In the mean while anger has been raged up between the people of Kargil as the newly formed government of Mufti Mohammad Sayeed has not granted any minister for any Kargili in the state.

Police conducts camp to prevent swine flu in Kargil

Police Kargil 4

Kargil:

In order to curb the growing problem of Swine flu, District police Kargil, today organised a Medical Camp at Indoor Stadium Kargil in which a detailed awareness programme on Swine flu was conducted by a team of doctors.

A large gathering of public participated in the camp in which, besides, awareness on Swine flu, a general check up by a team of professional doctors was conducted.

In addition to this, haemoglobin test and blood grouping was also done for the public, free of cost. A detailed power point presentation on Swine flu was delivered by Dr. Ghulam Hussain Bardi.

Police Kargil 5

A total of 397 people were checked up by the doctors and 145 blood tests were done in the daylong event.

Superintendent of Police Kargil, Sh.Shalendra Mishra, IPS, while speaking to the gathering stressed on the importance of awareness regarding Swine flu and its prevention.

Police Kargil 3

He added that besides Swine flu, there are various other infections and diseases which needs to be prevented by keeping fit and having a healthy life style. He promised that Swine flu masks shall be provided to the drivers of Kargil free of cost in few days as they frequently ply from Leh to Kargil.

He assured that besides normal policing, District Police Kargil will take every possible step to make the lives of the people safer and healthier.
Deputy Commissioner Kargil, Sh. Prasanna Ramaswamy, IAS, also spoke to the huge gathering who was the Chief Guest of the occassion.

Police Kargil 1

Later, mementoes and appreciation letters were distributed among doctors by the Deputy Commissioner and the Superintendent of Police. Additional D.C Kargil, Sh. Mozes Kunzang, CMO Kargil Dr.Shabbir Hussain, Medical Superintendent Dr.Mohd Afzal were also present on the function.

Police Kargil 2

Inspector Nisar Ahmed introduced the programme and acted as the stage secretary. The general public appreciated the role of District Police Kargil, especially the Superintendent of Police, Sh.Shailendra Mishra, IPS for organising such an apt programme in the heart of the town.

Anger tunes over among Kargili students in Jammu, stage protest

Jammu:

A protest was organized by the students of Kargil over the failure of the administration of state, especially Kargil administration, in providing airlifting facilities.

Kargili Protest in Jammu

The exams which were scheduled in October every year were postponed last year due to flood in Kashmir. The exams are now going to hold after few days.

Sources said that many students have been shifted to Jammu for the winter season. Now the students are demanding for airlifting facilities to reach the students on time to attend their exams.

The students also expressed their anger on the newly formed govt of the state upon the unfair and discriminatory distribution of the ministers of state, as nobody was elected as a minister in the current cabinet from Kargil district.

Hundreds of students showed their presence in the protest and appealed the govt to make necessary arrangements for the students suffering.

CIA and M16 assassinated their own puppet Boris Nemtsov in Russia to target Putin?

By Abhimanyu Kohar

Before talking about this particular incident, one needs to understand the background of current ongoing situation in former Soviet Union. When Soviet Union collapsed in 1990, there was a treaty signed between NATO and Russia, that Ukraine will neither join Western bloc and nor Russia, it will remain neutral. But Neo Nazi and fascist forces staged a coup against former Ukraine president Viktor Yanukovych to include Ukraine in western bloc; so that they can target Russia which was not allowing western nations to attack Syria (more about this can be read in my previous article which I wrote on Ukraine). NATO initially think that they will take over whole Ukraine after staging coup, but pro Russian rebels fought back and they captured whole of eastern Ukraine, mainly Luhansk and Donstek region before October.

Abi Maniv 1

Then in October, there was an agreement signed between Pro Russian rebels and puppet government of Ukraine in Minsk. After this USA and other western nation tried to scare Putin by putting lot of sanctions over Russia, so that they can force Putin for supporting rebels and Saudis combined with western nations to stage a dramatic slowdown in oil prices, so they can target Russia and Iran which are supporting Syrian president. One important thing which beginners need to know is that whole economy of Iran and Russia depends on export of gas and oil. But whoever studies life of Putin carefully, he will learn that Putin always tries to defeat his enemy by going on an offensive and same happened here, instead of getting scared, Putin increased his support to Pro Russian rebels and rebels gained more and more territory in eastern Ukraine and they captured an important railway junction, Debaltseve.

Now here comes a person named Boris Nemtsov in light, he was deputy PM at once point of time in Russian government in 90’s. He was a sort of western puppet and one of main opposition leader in Russia and he decided to organise a rally on 1st of March in Moscow against Putin government on the orders of his masters sitting in CIA and M16 headquarters. Boris Nemtsov was organising this rally against the support, Russia was providing to rebels. But in truth, less than 3% Russian population support these sorts of western puppets like Boris Nemtsov.

So there were huge chances to fail this rally completely, so western intelligence agencies allegedly assassinated Boris Nemtsov just 2 days before this planned rally to serve their two purposes.

First is to create a chaos in Russia by blaming Putin for this murder and second to gain some emotional support for this rally of 1st March. The problem with western countries is that they can’t face Putin face to face, which is evident from recent events in Syria and Putin, so they allegedly murdered main opposition leader to blame Putin for this, but they failed in achieving any of the above stated purposes. Today’s reports suggest that turnover in today’s planned rally was less than 10,000 and even hardline friends of Boris Nemtsov like Irina Khakamada, said Boris Nemtsov murder is a clear provocation by western countries.

Other points which I want to put forward to support my above theory are described below.

First point is that Putin is not an idiot who will stage murder of leader of such an opposition party which is supported by less than 3% of Russian population, and Putin has already achieved what he want to achieve in Ukraine by slamming pro Kiev forces in eastern Ukraine, so there was no need for Putin to assassinate Boris Nemtsov who posed no challenge for Putin.

Second point is that, Putin who himself is a EX KGB officer will not allow his opponent to gain any emotional support by murdering him one day before his planned rally and if he really wanted to target this rally, then he could have organised a huge counter rally by himself.

Third point is that on 27th of February, EX M16 chief John Sawers warned that Russia poses such a danger for west which can’t be stopped by directly fighting with Russia, he said that we need to use our secret services to counter Russia by organising chaos in Russia, and moments after that, this murder happens. So there are clear signs that this was a false flag operation by west which completely failed to deliver any sort of result for them and Russia still stand tall. But one thing is for sure that this is a complete failure of Russian secret services because they failed to stop external secret services in carrying such murders just 200 metre away from Kremlin.

Abhimanyu Kohar  is an emerging revolutionary, who is doing research on international geopolitical situations. He embarked an organization named Yuva Kranti in New Delhi.

Union budget 2015: Cruel joke with Minorities-SC-ST

The first full general budget presented by Prime Minister Narendra Modi-led government on Saturday failed to meet the expectations of an average citizen particularly minorities as it made major cuts in social expenditure that is a matter of serious concern, says Abdul Bari Masoud of Muslim Mirror News.

Budget 1

Even though in his lengthy budget speech, Finance Minister Arun Jaitley invoked ‘Daridra Narayan’ a verse from the Hindu Holy book Upanishad underlining the government’s commitment to the Constitutional principles of Equality and Justice for All.

“Our commitment to the ‘Daridra Narayan’ is steadfast, as is commitment, without concern for caste, creed or religion”. But, in fact, more than 22 per cent minority population got raw deal in the budget as their budget kitty was mere increased by four crores which is not even a fraction of the whole budget.

Similarly, there has also been a significant decrease in the Scheduled Caste Sub Plan allocation from Rs. 43,208 crore to Rs. 30,000 crore while in the Tribal Sub Plan it has gone down from Rs. 26,714 crore to Rs. 19,000 crore. The Finance Minister has made huge spending cuts in the social sector in essential programs of the government, leaving the burden of spending on the states.

For example, expenditure on Sarva Shiksha Abhiyaan has gone from 28,000 crores to 22,000 crores, the Integrated Child Development Scheme has gone from 16,000 crores to 8,000 crores and the Mid-Day Meal Scheme goes from 13,000 crores to 9,000 crores. This amply shows that the Modi government is least bother about welfare of the poor and disadvantage population of the country. In contrast, the minister has gone out of his way to appease the corporate sector with several major cuts and exemptions.

In his speech, Jaitley made a passing reference about minorities saying “an integrated education and livelihood scheme called ‘Nai Manzil’ will be launched this year to enable Minority Youth who do not have a formal school-leaving certificate to obtain one and find better employment. Further, to show-case civilization and culture of the Parsis, the Government will support, in 2015-16, an exhibition, ‘The Everlasting Flame’. The allocation for the Ministry of Minority Affairs is being protected. The BE for the year 2015-16 is `3,738 crore”.

The Minister’s speech should be termed as a cruel joke with minorities when he stated that ‘the allocation for the Ministry of Minority Affairs is being protected’. Does he want to say that by retaining the Minority Ministry, the government is doing a favour to minorities?
There was a demand for an Increase the budget allocation for the Minority Ministry to cater to the multitude of developmental deficits confronting minorities across sectors. However, it seems that the Modi government forgot its own slogan of “Sab Kaa Saath, Sab kaa Vikas”.